Streamflow in relation to extent of snow cover in central Colorado
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Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station , Fort Collins, Colo
Runoff, Streamflow, Snow, Measur
|Statement||by H.E. Brown and E.G. Dunford|
|Series||Station paper / Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station -- no. 24, Station paper (Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, Colo.)) -- no. 24.|
|Contributions||Dunford, E. G. (Earl Gerard), 1913-, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, Colo.), United States. Forest Service|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||9 p. :|
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SBSG is the Senator Beck Stream Gage at the outlet of the basin. The base map for snow covered area (MODSCAG f SCA) comes from the NASA MODIS snow‐covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) model (Painter et al., ), and we use 9 April data simply to show the extent of snow at near maximum by: decreases in snow cover extent, and transitions in the amount of precipitation falling as rain versus snow (Karl et al.
Groisman and Easterling () observed that there has been a 20% increase in annual snowfall and rainfall in Canada during the last four decades. Groisman et al. () analyzed records of snow cover in the Northern. During certain times of the year water from snowmelt can be responsible for almost all of the streamflow in a river.
An example is the South Platte River in Colorado and Nebraska. Historically, the South Platte River was essentially "turned off" after the supply of water coming from melting snow was exhausted in late spring. proximately a 10% reduction in the area of snow cover.
They linked this decrease in snow cover extent to an increase in spring temperatures and suggested the lower albedo from an increased fraction of snow-free land instigated a positive feedback that intensified the decline in snow extent.
Global trends and western U.S. hydroclimatology. Streamflow was measured on two watersheds from to when one of the watersheds was clearcut. Streamflow increased about 25% following this treatment.
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Many of the later water-balance studies in the high elevation spruce-fir and lodgepole forests were undertaken on the Frasier Experimental Forest in north-central by: In a recent paper, Koster et al.
() used a suite of state-of-the-art land surface models, a multidecadal dataset of meteorological forcing, and time series of streamflow observations in 17 basins (ranging in size from to million km 2) to study the sources of streamflow forecast skill—in particular, to isolate and quantify the.
Concurrent with the observed snowmelt and streamflow timing trends, the average annual temperature have increased 1°–2°C since the s over the (north) western part of North America, especially during the winter and spring seasons (Karl et al. ; Lettenmaier et al.
; Dettinger and Cayan ; Vincent et al. ), while precipitation trends are neither as monotonic. 1 Introduction. The Colorado River is the most overallocated river in the world [Christensen et al., ], with water demand projected to be greater than supply by approximately 4 × 10 9 m 3 in the year [U.S.
Bureau of Reclamation, ].This projected imbalance and related projected declines in streamflow [Christensen and Lettenmaier, ; McCabe and Wolock. Steven J.
Fletcher, in Data Assimilation for the Geosciences, SNOTEL. SNOTEL stands for SNOwpack TELemetry and is an extensive, automated system to collect snowpack and related climatic data in the Western United States.
It evolved from a Congressional mandate in the s to the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NCRS) to measure snowpack in the mountains of the West and to. streamflow and accelerated nutrient flushing, and wildfire.
Land cover: North American Land Cover Natural Resources Canada, US Geological Survey, Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, and Comisión Nacional Forestal.
The terrestrial cryosphere, including seasonal snow cover and glaciers, has reduced in extent and volume in recent decades (WGMS ).This is considered to be primarily a response to increasing global temperatures, with secondary effects associated with local precipitation patterns (Marzeion et al.
).Across High Mountain Asia (HMA), glacier trends show a mixed signal, with. This study used long-term in situ rainfall, snow, and streamflow data to explore the predictive contributions of snowmelt and rainfall to streamflow in six watersheds over the Western United States. Analysis showed that peak snow accumulation, snow-free day, and snowmelt slope all had strong correlation with peak streamflow, particularly in inland basins.
Description Streamflow in relation to extent of snow cover in central Colorado PDF
The timing of the meeting was particularly appropriate in view of new, daily snow cover data planned by NOAA-NESDIS, the availability of MODIS snow maps, and extensive work on passive microwave mapping of snow cover extent and snow water equivalent since the.
Colorado River Basin Water Management assesses existing scientific information, including temperature and streamflow records, tree-ring based reconstructions, and climate model projections, and how it relates to Colorado River water supplies and demands, water management, and drought preparedness.
The book concludes that successful adjustments. Spatially distributed snow cover information is important for the assessment of climate-related variability of water resources and for calibration and validation of hydrological models in snow-dominated regions.
Near-real-time snow cover data can be valuable for short term to seasonal streamflow prediction. Such information can be extracted using remote sensing techniques with good. The date of the streamflow centroid in study watersheds most influenced by snow tends to decrease, due to a shift from snow‐dominated to more transient snow/rain hydrology as air temperatures warm (Hamlet and Lettenmaier, ), while for some scenarios, simulations suggest this effect will be overwhelmed by increased summer precipitation.
understand the factors influencing plant-water relationships and streamflow response. As Bosch and Hewlett () noted, streamflow response to a change in forest cover is strongly related to climate, species composition, and the percentage change in vegetation density (see Figure 1). Projects - Climate Adaptation Science Centers Loading.
Winter snow extent is a good proxy for winter snowfall. Snow has to fall before it can cover the ground. So what about summer snow cover.
Summer snow cover declined significantly (from the s ice age scare) during the s, but minimums have not changed much since then.
If it had been unusually wet, not only would most of the water in the snow cover run off but the increased contribution from water in the soil might build streamflows of a size no one had.
The effects on the Colorado environment are apparent. Since the s the water available from Colorado snowpack has decreased by 30%. As a result streamflow in the Colorado River has decreased. We used remotely sensed Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) and Snow Cover Extent (SCE) data to investigate streamflow response to seasonal snow cover change over the Yukon watershed.
Saito, K., Yasunari, T. and Cohen, J. Changes in the sub-decadal covariability between northern hemisphere snow cover and the general circulation of the atmosphere.
International Journal of Climatol Google Scholar. The extent of snow cover within the MARFC region is below normal for late winter.
Where snow does exits, there is a sharp gradient in snow conditions heading north from central PA to southern NY. Specifically, snow depths range from zero across central PA to nearly 15 inches across portions of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin in NY.
Jiming Jin's 70 research works with 1, citations and 6, reads, including: Room for improvement: A review and evaluation of 24 soil thermal conductivity parameterization schemes commonly used.
Snow and ice analysts in the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service have been creating weekly maps showing the extent of snow cover for the Northern Hemisphere since using visible imagery from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites and surface observations as data sources.
Recent Northern Hemisphere snow extent: a comparison of data derived from visible and microwave sensors. Geophysical Research Letters 28 (19): Tait, A. B., D. Hall, J.
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Foster, and R. Armstrong. Utilizing multiple data sets for snow-cover mapping. Remote Sensing of the Environment 72(1): For the Northern Hemisphere as a whole, over the period from late to the end ofboth the visible and passive microwave data showed a decrease in snow cover.
But the visible data revealed snow cover to be decreasing at a rate of 59 km 2 per year (% per decade), whereas the passive microwave data estimated the trend at roughly. Mountain areas influenced by snow and glacier melt play a key role in regional water supply (Viviroli et al ), yet these regions are particularly sensitive to temperature changes (Barnett et al ).Due to its semi-arid to arid lowlands, Central Asia is a prominent example for a region that strongly relies on mountain water resources (Viviroli et al ).
A complete shift in precipitation from snow to rain reduced streamflow between 11% and 18%, while 4 °C of uniform warming reduced streamflow between 19% and 23%, suggesting that changes in energy-driven evaporative loss, between 27% and 29% for these uniform warming scenarios, may be the dominant driver of annual mean streamflow in a warming.
Currently, the snow cover in Colorado is sparser, and thinner than it is in an average year. Parts of the Rocky Mountains have less than half of the snow cover .In the western U.S., nearly three-quarters of the annual streamflow that provides the water supply arrives as spring and summer melt from the mountain snow packs.Drought conditions have continued to improve since early January in southern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and central and northern Utah, but persist in eastern Colorado and northeastern Wyoming.
D1 or D2 conditions now cover 35% of Colorado (same as last month), 9% of Wyoming (down from 16%), and 0% of Utah (down from 13%).
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